13 Base types
To talk about objects and OOP in R we need to first deal with a fundamental confusion: we use the word object to mean two different things. In this book so far, we’ve used object in a general sense, as captured by John Chambers’ pithy quote: “Everything that exists in R is an object”. However, while everything is an object, not everything is “object-oriented”. This confusion arises because the base objects come from S, and were developed before anyone was thinking that S might need an OOP system. The tools and nomenclature evolved organically over many years without a single guiding principle.
Most of the time, the distinction between objects and object-oriented objects is not important. But here we need to get into the nitty gritty details so we’ll use the terms base objects and OO objects to distinguish them.
We’ll also discuss the
is.* functions here. These functions are used for many purposes, but are commonly used to determine if an object has a specific base type.
13.2 Base objects vs OO objects
To tell the difference between a base and an OO object, use
(This function would be better called
is.oo() because it tells you if an object is a base object or a OO object.)
The primary attribute that distinguishes between base and OO object is the “class”. Base objects do not have a class attribute:
attr(x, "class") and
class(x) do not always return the same thing, as
class() returns a value, not
NULL, for base objects. We’ll talk about exactly what it does return in the next chapter.
13.3 Base types
While only OO objects have a class attribute, every object has a base type:
Base types do not form an OOP system because functions that behave differently for different base types are primarily written in C, where dispatch occurs using switch statements. This means only R-core can create new types, and creating a new type is a lot of work. As a consequence, new base types are rarely added. The most recent change, in 2011, added two exotic types that you never see in R, but are needed for diagnosing memory problems (
FREESXP). Prior to that, the last type added was a special base type for S4 objects (
S4SXP) added in 2005.
In total, there are 25 different base types. They are listed below, loosely grouped according to where they’re discussed in this book.
The vectors: NULL, logical, integer, double, complex, character, list, raw.
Functions: closure (regular R functions), special (internal functions), builtin (primitive functions) and environment.
Language components: symbol (aka names), language (usually called calls), pairlist (used for function arguments).
“Expression” is a special purpose type that’s only returned by
expression(). They are not needed in user code.
There are a few esoteric types that are important for C code but not generally available at the R level: externalptr, weakref, bytecode, S4, promise, “…”, and any.
You may have heard of
storage.mode(). I recommend ignoring these functions because they just provide S compatible aliases of
typeof(). Read the source code if you want to understand exactly what they do.
13.4 The is functions
This is also a good place to discuss the
is functions because they’re often used to check if an object has a specific type:
“Is” functions are often surprising because there are several different classes, they often have a few special cases, and their names are historical so don’t always reflect the usage in this book. They fall roughly into six classes:
A specific value of
is.integer()is almost in this class, but it specifically checks for the absense of a class attribute containing “factor”. Also note that
is.vector()belongs to the “attributes” class, and
is.numeric()is described specially below.
A set of possible base types:
is.atomic()= logical, integer, double, character, raw, and (surprisingly) NULL.
is.function()= special, builtin, closure.
is.primitive()= special, builtin.
is.language()= symbol, language, expression.
is.recursive()= list, language, expression.
xhas no attributes apart from names. It does not check if an object is an atomic vector or list.
length(dim(x))is greater than zero.
Has an S3 class:
Vectorised mathematical operation:
Finally there are a bunch of special purpose functions that don’t fall into any other category:
is.loaded(): tests if a C/Fortran subroutine is loaded.
is.object(): discussed above.
is.single(): are included for S+ compatibility
is.unsorted()tests if a vector is unsorted.
is.element(x, y)checks if
xis an element of
y: it’s even more different as it takes two arguments, unlike every other
13.4.1 Numeric type
is.numeric(), is sufficiently complicated and important that it needs a little extra discussion. The complexity comes about because R uses “numeric” to mean three slightly different things:
In some places it’s used as an alias for “double”. For example
as.numeric()is identical to
numeric()is identical to
R also occasionally uses “real” instead of double;
NA_real_is the one place that you’re likely to encounter this in practice.
In S3 and S4 it is used to mean either integer or double. We’ll talk about
s3_class()in the next chapter:
is.numeric()it means an object built on a base type of integer or double that is not a factor, i.e. an object that behaves like a number.